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Basic knowledge of pump
Time:2012-9-26 11:42:10    View:113    Author:FAMOUSS PUMP
What is pump?

Pump is a kind of machine to transport liquid or press liquid. It imparts mechanical energy from prime motor or other external energies to liquid and increase liquid energy.

Pump is used to transport water, oil, acid alkali liquor, emulsion, suspension emulsion and liquid metal etc., and also the mixture of liquid & air and suspended solid liquid.

Pumps have three types according to the working principle, positive displacement pump, dynamic pump and other types. Apart from working principle, there are other ways to classify and name. There are motor-driven pump and turbine pump according to driven, single pump and multi-stage pump according to structure, boiler feed pump and metering pump according to usage, and water pump, oil pump, and dredge pump according to properties of liquid.

All pump performance parameters have certain interdependence relations, which can expressed by curves called pump curves. Every pump has its own certain characteristic curve.

Definition of pump and pump history

In a broad sense, pump is a kind of machine to transport liquid or press liquid, including machines to transport gas. It imparts mechanical energy from prime motor or other external energies to liquid and increase liquid energy.

Water lifting is very important to people’s life and production. In ancient times, there appeared many water lifting tools, such as Egypt chain pump(17th century BC), China shadoof( 17th century BC), windlass(11th century BC), waterwheel(1st century), and ancient Greek screw rod invented by Archimedes in 3rd century BC. About 200 years before century, ancient Greek Ktesibios invented the most original piston pump-fire pump. In 1588, there recorded sliding vane pump with 4 vanes, and other various drum pumps appeared. In 1689, D.Papin from France invented volute centrifugal pump with 4 vanes impeller. In 1818, centrifugal pump with radial straight blade and semi-open double suction impeller and volute appeared in America. From 1840 to 1850, the United States HR Worthington invented the steam pump cylinder and steam cylinder opposed direct role in the piston pump, marks the formation of the modern piston pump. From 1851 to 1875, with a multi-stage centrifugal pumps have invented the guide vanes, so that the development of high-lift centrifugal pump possible. Subsequently, a variety of pumps have been brought forth. With the application of advanced technology, the efficiency of the pump gradually increases the performance of the scope and application of widening.

The basis for classification of the pump

The pump has wide variety, and can be divided according to working principle:

1.  power-type pump, also known as impeller-type pump or vane pump. Rely on the dynamic action produced by the rotation of the impeller on the liquid, the energy is continuously passed to the liquid, so that the kinetic energy of the liquid (main) and the pressure can increase, followed by delivery chamber where converts kinetic energy into pressure energy. It can be divided into centrifugal pumps, axial flow, partial flow pump and vortex pump.

2.  Positive displacement pump, relying on periodic variation of containing liquid sealing of the volume of the working space, the energy is periodically imparted to the liquid, so that the increase in the pressure of the liquid to the liquid forcibly discharged. According to the form of movement of the working element, it can be divided into the reciprocating pump and drum pump.

3.  Other types of pumps, transfer energy in other forms. Such as jet pumps rely on high-speed ejection of the working fluid to suction liquid and mix, and exchange momentum and transfer energy; water hammer pumps using the braking portion of the water flowing to rise to a certain height to transfer the energy; electromagnetic pump is to make energization of the liquid metal in the electromagnetic force generating flow conveying. In addition, the pump can also be classified according to the nature of liquid, the driving method, the structure and usage, etc..

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